Reading Assignment #03
- Further studies
Materials science: Long-lived electrodes for plastic batteries
Byungju Lee & Kisuk Kang
Exercise 1 Answer the following questions.
- In the passage, Kolek et al. reported a battery electrode based on an organic polymer that could help to overcome challenges the current batteries had. What type of batteries are researchers aiming to develop with an organic polymer?
- a. To develop rechargeable batteries, using lithium-ion found in smartphones and many electric vehicles in order to fulfil future demand of energy supply.
- b. To develop rechargeable batteries that are reliable, affordable and sustainable to fulfil future demand of energy supply.
- c. To develop conventional batteries that smooth out unpredictable costs and environmental issues associated with their use.
- 2. The word “benign” in “the use of large amounts of transition metals is neither sustainable nor environmentally benign” is closest in meaning to
- a. kind and gentle
- b. pleasant or beneficial
- c. not malignant
- 3. What is true about battery electrodes, which conventionally consist of transition-metal oxides, such as cobalt or nickel oxide?
- Metals used for these battery electrodes are abundant, making production cost of batteries stable.
- Metals used for these battery electrodes have a smaller CO2 – emission footprint.
- Metals used for these battery electrodes are concentrated in certain conflict-prone countries, making production cost unstable.
- 4. The word “intrinsic” in “other intrinsic problems of organic electrodes include the fact that they dissolve in electrolytes” is closest in meaning to
- innate, natural
- 5. The word “vulnerable ” in “In high-capacity batteries that involve the transfer of great numbers of electrons, this charge localization causes free radicals to form, making the molecule unstable and vulnerable to side reactions” is closest in meaning to
Exercise 2 Choose the correct word or expression to complete each of the following sentences.
1. Conventional batteries might not fulfil future demand because of the limited ( ) of the metals needed to make them.
2. A substantial rise ( ) battery production is thus considered inevitable.
3. However, batteries ( ) electrodes contain organic materials have short cycle lives and low power capabilities, ( ) make charging slow. 適切な組み合わせを選びなさい
- which, which
- whose, which
- that, which
4. The energy storage they provide helps to ( ) spatial and temporal fluctuations in energy supply and demand.
- make out
- smooth out
- solve out
5. The polymer also enables an operation voltage of 3.55 volts, which is comparable with ( ) of conventional electrodes.
Do your own project!
See you in class!