Reading Assignment #07
- Further studies
1. nature NEWS
Be open about drug failures to speed up research
Access to evidence from disappointing drug-development programmes advances the whole scientific process, explain Enrica Alteri and Lorenzo Guizzaro.
Answer the following questions.
1. Which of the following can substitute for the word assess in "assessing" from section 4?
2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a benefit of companies' learning from each other?
a) Decision-making with regard to clinical trials would be faster.
b) Evaluation of clinical trials would be more accurate.
c) Budgets needed to conduct researches would significantly come down.
3. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about results of the data-sharing initiative?
a) If it succeeds, it will probably lead to faster drug development.
b) If it is successful, it will probably lead to lower drug prices.
c) If it is successfully implemented, it will probably lead to development of totally new kinds of drugs.
4. Which of the following is the word "encompass" in section 7 closest in meaning to?
5. Which of the following is the problem with the present data sharing practices?
a) Very few drug companies are willing to share any data that they have accumulated with others.
b) Companies are sharing too little of what they have known.
c) The most important data is not being disclosed for sharing with other companies.
6. Which of the following can replace the word "validate" in section 9?
7. Which of the following is the word "potential" in section 12 closest in meaning to?
8. Which of the following is the goal of the date-sharing initiatives outlined in this passage?
a) There will be more data about past clinical trials available among companies, resulting in speedier research in the community.
b) There will be more data about past clinical trials available among drug developers, resulting in individual companies making profit more quickly.
c) There will be more data about past clinical trials publicly available so that regulators can better manage it.
9. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a factor contributing to the success of Alzheimer's drug-development programs led by the European Medicines Agency?
a) Drug companies are under pressure to work with other drug companies although indirectly.
b) Drug companies think collective efforts work better than individual efforts.
c) Different companies' drug developing efforts are coordinated for more efficient drug development processes
10. Which of the following words is "nonetheless" in section 24 closest in meaning to?
c) even so