Reading Assignment #01

予習の仕方

  1. まずは記事を読み大意を把握する。
  2. 語彙トレーニング1(単語カード)
    • カードをめくり、英語の音声をリピートし、次に意味を確認しましょう。自分で英単語を発音することが重要です。
  3. 記事の内容を理解しながらしっかり読む。
  4. クイズに取り組む。(解答は公開されません。仲間と意見交換して適切な答えを探すのも良いでしょう)
  5. もう一度記事を読んで理解を確認する。
  6. 語彙トレーニング2(ディクテーション)
  7. Further studies
    • 記事のトピックについてリサーチする
    • 記事のサマリーをまとめる
    • 著者について調べる
    • 関連記事を読む
    • その他

nature NEWS

Article

Gender bias goes away when grant reviewers focus on the science
But female scientists suffer when their research proposals are judged primarily on the strength of their CVs.
Giorgia Guglielmi


次のリンク先にアクセスし、記事を読みましょう。
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-01212-0

語彙

語彙トレーニング1(単語カード)


Quiz

Exercise 1 Answer the following questions.


  1. The word “robust” in the passage is closest in meaning to

    1. obscure

    2. strong

    3. obedient  

  2. Witteman says “that’s a significant difference” because
    1. in the grant programme with an explicit focus on the applicants' previous research and qualifications, the success rate for male applicants was 4% higher than for female applicants.

    2. in the conventional grant programmes, the success rate for male applicants was 0.9% higher than the rate for female applicants.

    3. of all the applications submitted to CIHR grant programmes between 2011 and 2016, the success rate was 15.8% according to their calculation.

  3. The word “randomized” in the passage is closest in meaning to
    1. mathematicized

    2. fully demonstrated

    3. differentiated

  4. The word “unproven” in the passage is closest in meaning to

    1. disappeared

    2. identified

    3. gray

  5. Why does Ginther say it’s interesting that the gender differences in finding outcomes disappeared after the CIHR implemented new policies, which included asking reviewers to complete a training module about unconscious bias?

    1. Because she expected that the gender differences would vanish by introducing the new policies.  

    2. Because she has paid attention to racial bias in grant programmes at the US National Institutes of Health.

    3. Because such training programs might reinforce gender bias, according to the previous work.

  6. The word “unconscious” in the passage is closest in meaning to

    1. implicit

    2. intended

    3. contingent

  7. The word “counterproductive” in the passage is closest in meaning to

    1. affirmatively affected

    2. negatively affected

    3. complemented

  8. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

    1. The CHIR has not been successful completely in eradicating bias against women and minorities by educating and evaluating reviewers.

    2. The CHIR is ready to spread its reviewer training module in order to eliminate bias against women and minorities.

    3. The CHIR has nothing to do with bias against women and minorities, since all the problems seem to be settled down.



Exercise 2 Choose the correct word or expression to complete each of the following sentences.

  1. Women lose out when reviewers are asked to assess the researcher, (            ) than the research, on a grant application.

    1. better than

    2. more than

    3. rather than

  2. They came out of a 2014 decision by the CIHR to (            ) conventional grant programmes.

    1. phase out

    2. reach out

    3. leave out

  3. The CIHR started one programme that focused its evaluation on the applicants and another that focused (            ) on their research.

    1. almost

    2. mostly

    3. most

  4. This created a natural experiment that allowed scientists to test whether funding differences were (            ) the quality of the applicants’ research or to biased assessments of their gender.

    1. because

    2. either

    3. due to

  5. Past studies have looked at gender inequalities in grant funding, but most examined grant programmes (            ) didn't separate their application pool like the CIHR programmes.

    1. what

    2. who

    3. that

  6. Witteman and her colleagues calculated that, of all the applications submitted to CIHR grant programmes between 2011 and 2016, 15.8% were (            ) be successful.

    1. likely to

    2. tend to

    3. reluctant to

  7. Witteman warns that the study was not randomized, meaning there may be differences between male and female applicants, such as their publication records, which might help to (            ) the different success rates.

    1. apply for

    2. account for

    3. allow for

  8. In the CIHR experiments, “there would be a bias if two people publish the same papers and one is preferred (            ) the other”, she says.

    1. to

    2. than

    3. of

  9. The CIHR is committed (            ) bias against women and minorities by educating and evaluating reviewers, says Robyn Tamblyn.

    1. to eliminate

    2. to eliminating

    3. eliminating

  10. Witteman now plans to look at the reviewer training module, to see (            ) it might help to reduce biases.

    1. if

    2. when

    3. where


語彙トレーニング2(ディクテーション)


Do your own project!

See you in class!