nature Article, Artificial neurons compute faster than the human brain

予習の仕方

  1. まずは記事を読み大意を把握する。
  2. 語彙トレーニング1(単語カード)
    • カードをめくり、英語の音声をリピートし、次に意味を確認しましょう。自分で英単語を発音することが重要です。
  3. 記事の内容を理解しながらしっかり読む。
  4. クイズに取り組む。(解答は公開されません。仲間と意見交換して適切な答えを探すのも良いでしょう)
  5. もう一度記事を読んで理解を確認する。
  6. 語彙トレーニング2(ディクテーション)
  7. Further studies
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nature NEWS

Article

Artificial neurons compute faster than the human brain

Sara Reardon

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語彙

語彙トレーニング1(単語カード)


Quiz

Exercise 1 Answer the following questions.

  1. The word “process” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

    1. wedge

    2. mold

    3. experience  

    4. deal with

  2. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true of conventional computer hardware?

    1. It has more computing power than the human brain.

    2. It was invented by Google.

    3. It has insufficient computing power for machine-learning tasks.

    4. It uses networks of artificial neurons to perform complex tasks.

  3. The phrase “figured out” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

    1. found

    2. calculated

    3. maneuvered  

    4. implied

  4. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true of neuromorphic devices?

    1. They are designed to behave just as the human brain does.

    2. They process information in either 1 or 0 bits.

    3. They require less energy than  biological neurons.

    4. There are a number of institutions to develop them.

  5. All of the following statements are true of the nanoclusters of magnetic manganese EXCEPT:

    1. They were used to fill the gaps between the superconductors.

    2. They were used by Schneider’s team to make the superconductors work more efficiently.

    3. They can be aligned in various directions.

    4. They require no physical space but a great amount of energy.

  6. Which of the following best describes “one ten-thousandth”?

    1. 1/10,000

    2. 110,000

    3. 10/1000

    4. 11,000

  7. All of the following statements are true regarding the future of neuromorphic computing EXCEPT:

    1. Neuromorphic computing will be advanced more if the functions of the human brain are fully understood.

    2. It will take a lot of time before people use neuromorphic computing devices.

    3. The competition of neuromorphic computing devices will be less severe.

    4. Some people think it is important to develop various technological approaches for the future.

Exercise 2 Choose the correct word or expression to complete each of the following sentences.

  1. Superconducting computing chips modelled (            ) neurons can process information faster and more efficiently than the human brain.

    1. before

    2. with

    3. after

    4. of

  2. Artificial intelligence software has increasingly begun to (            ) the brain.

    1. surpass

    2. maintain

    3. outpower

    4. imitate

  3. In conventional electronic systems, transistors process information at regular intervals and in (            ) amounts — either 1 or 0 bits.

    1. precise

    2. random

    3. various

    4. fixed

  4. Schneider’s team created neuron-(            ) electrodes out of niobium superconductors.

    1. friendly

    2. like

    3. minded

    4. based

  5. By (            ) the amount of magnetic field in the synapse, the nanoclusters can be aligned to point in different directions.

    1. varying

    2. various

    3. variety

    4. varied

  6. It remains to be (            ) whether it will be possible to scale it to this level.

    1. see

    2. saw

    3. seeing

    4. seen

  7. Synapses can only operate at temperatures close to (            ) zero.

    1. ground

    2. absolute

    3. infinite

    4. phase

  8. Cooling the devices requires (            ) energy than operating a conventional electronic system with an equivalent amount of computing power.

    1. no more

    2. no less

    3. much less

    4. much more

  9. They face stiff competition from the many other neuromorphic computing devices (            ) development.

    1. under

    2. over

    3. below

    4. above

  10. Furber also stresses that practical applications are (            ) in the future.

    1. fur

    2. far

    3. close

    4. near


語彙トレーニング2(ディクテーション)


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